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Pollutants in water
Water that is circulated even in tap water, often contains salts (such as chlorine, sulphates and carbonates), dissolved gases (such as oxygen and carbon dioxide) and metal ions (such as iron and manganese ions). The presence of these pollutants can cause a series of problems. The main problems that are caused are fouling, limestone formation, corrosion and biological growth.
Bacteria and other pathogenic mircro-organisms are present everywhere in the environment. They can often be found in cooling tower water. When cooling towers contain an open recirculation system, micro-organisms can spread from air to water. Micro-organisms can rapidly multiply when a substrate is present and a number of conditions are ideal for microbial growth. Examples of these factors are pH, temperature, oxygen concentration and nutrients. The nutrient content in water increases because of water evaporation. Process leaks and water use can also cause the nutrient content in the water to increase. Higher nutrient content can cause problems.
When significant microbial growth takes place, a slime layer is formed. This slime layer contains both organic and inorganic matter. Some micro-organisms excrete polymers, which can form a gel-like network around cells after hydrolysis takes place. This is called a biofilm. As a result of biofilm formation, microorganisms can attach themselves to surface layers. This biofilm layer allows micro-organisms to no longer be flushed away. Biofilms protect micro-organisms from toxic disinfectants. Water disinfection will be much more difficult when a biofilm is present.
Biofilm partly consists of microbiological cells and other components. Biofilm, which is very sticky, also contains organic and inorganic matter that is present in the water and is absorbed by the film. This matter contains chemical precipitation, organic flakes and dead cell mass.
Harsonic® for Coolingtowers avoids the formation of biofilm and cleans the tower completely. Even rust falls on the ground from the walls and the walls become like new.
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